Transients occur in power systems when over-voltages exceed insulation strength. Severe consequences may be experienced under such conditions. This happens mainly because the inductors capacitors usually respond very slowly to such changes in voltages. Inductors and capacitors tend to absorb and release energy as opposed to resistors, which are instantaneous in their response to the application of voltages (Greenwood, 1991, p. 356).
Overvoltage tends to cause drastic happenings such as total breakdown to power systems. This happens whenever the voltage exceeds that of the insulating material in power systems. There are two ways that are usually employed in protecting powers systems from overvoltage. One of them is by designing a machine that is well adapted to such conditions of overvoltage, while the other method involves the use of protectors such as lightning arresters or power surges (Jacks, 1975, p. 231).
The term overvoltage is a general term used to refer to the different voltages. These include the steady over-voltages and transient overvoltage. The former involves a slight increase in frequency level of voltage while the latter involves changes in amplitudes. The one which causes the most concern to the power system is the power surge voltages which are transient voltages occurring over a short duration. They have very severe implications on power systems as they exceed electrical insulation. Therefore it is a pulse or surge voltage that causes transients in power systems.
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