At a relatively lower flow rate, the size of the bubble mainly depends on drag and surface tension force. Drag is exerted by the flowing fluid while surface tension force keeps the bubble adhered to the orifice. The modelling procedure of the bubble formation is quite complex due to several parameters. The list of assumptions that have to be made for modelling the bubble formation is listed in the appendix-I .
The advancement of a bubble entails two key stages identified as the expansion phase and the detachment phase as illustrated in figure 1 . The diverse forces that are exerted on the bubble are 
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