The second arch, known as the longitudinal arch,

The second arch, known as the longitudinal arch, runs parallel to the medial arch but along the periphery of the foot. The arch, according to Myers (1997) is made up “…of the calcaneus, the cuboid, and the fourth and fifth metatarsal” (para. 34). Anatomically, the cuboid bone resembles a trapezium, with the wider aspect facing the top. This arrangement allows for the firm joining of the calcaneus on one side, and the forth and fifth metatarsals on the other, making the cuboid bone to be lifted off the ground. The lateral arch is known to be very stable (Myers, 1997).

The third foot arch, called the transverse arch, transverses the mid-foot from the exterior to the interior of the foot. This particular arch is formed by the proximal components of the five metatarsal bones, the cuboid, and the three cuneiform bones (Myers, 1997). Here, it is important to note that the three cuneiform bones resemble a wedge pointed downwards. Their structure makes the bones to form a natural arch while leaning on the end of the cuboid. A closer look at the ends of the five metatarsals reveals some rounded bones which hardly come into contact with each other. According to Myers, “…this part of the transverse arch is certainly not held in place by the shapes of the bones, and depends on the integrity of the muscles, particularly the adductor hallucis, to maintain it”

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