Soil is one of the major reservoirs of microorganisms

Soil is one of the major reservoirs of microorganisms, especially prokaryotes. It is considered to be one the most complex environments. Microbes are heterogeneous and are distributed widely inside micro-aggregates and macro-porosities. The micro organisms are known to bind strongly to the soil particles (Mirnejad 2011). As a result, the whole microbe cannot be accessed. To be able to harvest the important molecules, it is important for one to isolate them from the soil particles.

A number of processes are undertaken to facilitate the extraction of these key molecules. To begin with, the soil particles are dispersed (Mirnejad 2011). The process of dispersal is aimed at dislodging cells that had been trapped in the inner compartments of the soil. It is important to consider the minute size of the prokaryotes when carrying out the dispersal to avoid their destruction. Centrifugation is then done. The main objective is to separate the bacteria from soil and organic particles. The process reduces the number of contaminants present in the extracted sample (Mirnejad 2011). The microbes are then cultured on various solid substrates. The plates used for culturing contain various nutrients to support the growth of specific bacteria only. Isolation and identification of individuals of a specific group is then done to ensure that microbes isolated are of pure composition. DNA extracts can then be sourced from the microbes.

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