One would actually wonder how this happens yet for group four elements the atoms are covalently bonded. Indeed, with all the electrons on the outer shell bonded, a high resistance to electric current is anticipated for these types of semiconductors otherwise intrinsic semiconductors. Conductivity for these conductors is enhanced by imperfections in the crystal lattice and thermal ionization due to heating.3Â Therefore, conductivity increases with temperature as is in thermistors. Of note, for these conductors, the number of holes and those of electrons tally.
Scientific advancements in semiconductors led to the discovery of extrinsic semiconductors. These are developed from intrinsic semiconductors when a few impurities are added to the same in a process referred to as doping. These kinds of semiconductors were a major breakthrough in the world of electronics. Devices, for instance, diodes and transistors are among the components that are developed from this kind semiconductor. Doping is done either by group five elements, for instance, arsenic, or by group three elements, for instance, indium. Doping with group five elements results in the formation of an n-type semiconductor. Otherwise, when one does doping using a group three element he/she achieves a p-type semiconductor. The figures below represent the structures of the aforementioned semiconductors.
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