Reduced gut mobility that sanctions constipation is caused by the action of morphine on the myenteric plexus. It exerts its effect through its receptors in the stomach thereby inhibiting gastric emptying and peristalsis in the intestines. Consequently, the rate at which food enters and leaves the digestive system is greatly reduced. Morphine can also act on the stomach directly thereby inhibiting the rate of NO production (Maisto 243).
Addicts of morphine suffer from extreme feelings of euphoria, ambitions, relaxation, nervousness, drowsiness, and sleeplessness. Morphine is also known to cause tolerance, physiological dependence, physical dependence, and addiction in such victims when used in combination with heroin (Maisto 244). Morphine also causes respiratory depression but this side-effect is dependent on the concentration of the drug. Therefore, it can cause high or low respiratory rates depending on the starting dose.
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