Fred Janssen & Arend Jan Waarlo – Sourced from Academic Source Premier Database

The researchers are specifically concerned with developing and testing a biology teaching and learning method known as learning by designing. This approach is basically informed by the fact that students “…develop knowledge about the function and mechanism of biological systems by redesigning them” (Jensen & Waarlo 88). Consequently, the researchers develop three components of learning biology by designing, namely, the design heuristic, the major aspects of the teaching-learning process, and procedures for developing lessons with the preferred features.

In the first component – design heuristic –, the researchers take cognizance of the fact that organisms are optimally designed basically for survival and reproduction. (Jensen & Waarlo 89). In the second component – characteristics of the learning by design teaching/learning process –, “…a description is given of how the teaching/learning process must be organized and executed in order for students to develop adequate knowledge and learn to use the design heuristic independently” (Jensen & Waarlo 89). In the third component – the development of lessons –, the biology teachers may either utilize the design heuristic to expand or adjust their knowledge of biological systems or use the tentative problem structure to make adjustments to the prior knowledge of students in a lesson plan (Jensen & Waarlo 90).

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