Fat is the ingredient that traps the air bubbles within itself

Fat is the ingredient that traps the air bubbles within itself during intense mixing or beating. As a result, the substances become light and airy during baking as heat causes the bubbles of air to expand. Fat added between the layers of dough prevents them from sticking together, forming layered pastries. Fat limits the network of gluten, making the dough tender and easier to break. Fats contained in butter or lard are also used for their flavors. This way fat is responsible for such processes as creaming, shortening, layering and flavor.2

Sugar’s well known function is sweetening the products, but it also has a capacity to caramelize under heat, which provides browning to the pastries by means of adding an attractive looking crust on them. This is called Maillard reaction, during which sugar keton or aldehyde is turned into an unsaturated aldehyde or keton.2 Besides, high level of sugar improves the keeping feature of baked foods.

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