External corrosion occurs in pipelines that are either open to the elements or are concealed in the soil. Studies reveal that aspects that improve the soilâ€™s conduction of electricity amplify its corrosive tendencies because the transfer of ions via an electrolyte is mandatory for corrosion to occur. Therefore, aspects such as elevated moisture content, high salt concentrations, and poor drainage influence corrosion. In addition, aeration and soil type (such as clay, which draws protective layers from pipes during expansion and contraction) also cause external corrosion.
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